Articolo tratto da Corcom di Federica Meta

Il 16% degli italiani utilizza servizi digitali bancari, soprattutto mobile payment e mobile wallet. Si apre l’era dei robo-advisor e della blockchain. Solo pochi istituti di credito hanno strategie adeguate per agganciare il treno dell’innovazione. La fotografia scattata dall’Osservatorio Fintech & Digital Finance del Politecnico di Milano

L’utenza si fa sempre più digitalizzata e esigente, con il 16% degli italiani che ha utilizzato almeno un servizio Fintech nel corso del 2017 e con il 56% dei clienti bancari già attivo da pc, tablet e smartphone. Si affacciano nuovi competitor come le società BigTech, con 51 grandi operatori internazionali che oggi offrono 120 soluzioni finanziarie, o come le startup innovative, in grado di raccogliere finanziamenti per 25 miliardi di dollari nel periodo 2014-2017. Si diffondono nuove tecnologie come blockchain, big data e roboadvisor che impongono nuovi servizi agli istituti tradizionali. La rivoluzione digitale sta investendo il settore finanziario italiano, che – nonostante una crescita di consapevolezza dell’impatto delle nuove tecnologie – non ha ancora strategie definite per il processo di trasformazione digitale. Il quadro è disegnato dall’Osservatorio Fintech & Digital Finance della School of Management del Politecnico di Milano.


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“La velocità con cui si sviluppano le nuove tecnologie e si susseguono le spinte al cambiamento indotte dalla rivoluzione digitale porta a una continua ridefinizione dei confini della competizione e del modello di business di soggetti finanziari e bancari – afferma Marco Giorgino, Responsabile Scientifico dell’Osservatorio Fintech & Digital Finance – Le spinte digitali esterne sono costituite dalle crescenti ambizioni delle aziende tecnologiche sulle attività finanziarie, dalla dinamicità delle startup Fintech e dalla nascita di ecosistemi aggiuntivi al trust bancario come quelli basati su blockchain. Ma si assiste anche alla nascita di importanti motori di cambiamento interni, come la presa di coscienza dell’importanza della gestione dei dati, la rilevanza dell’intelligenza artificiale e forme organizzative agili più adatte alla finanza dal dna digitale”.

“Oggi il cliente, sia consumer sia business, chiede sempre maggiore velocità di risposta, reperibilità dei consulenti e accessibilità di prodotti e servizi in qualunque luogo e momento, e questo risultato si può ottenere soltanto portando avanti una completa digitalizzazione di tutte le attività – dice Filippo Renga, Direttore dell’Osservatorio Fintech & Digital Finance – Già adesso il 56% degli utenti si relaziona con la propria banca utilizzando un pc, un tablet o uno smartphone: questo numero, con i nuovi servizi lanciati a livello internazionale e l’ingresso delle nuove generazioni di nativi digitali nel mondo delle professioni, delle imprese e dei consumi, continuerà ad aumentare. L’ecosistema finanziario non può farsi trovare impreparato”.

L’innovazione digitale nel retail bancario – Cresce l’utenza bancaria attiva attraverso i canali digitali: il 38% dei clienti usa il pc per interagire con la propria banca (+5% rispetto al 2016), mentre la percentuale di utenti mobile (che usano tablet o smartphone) è pari al 15%, rispetto al 9% di un anno fa. Alcuni istituti finanziari hanno investito più di altri nella creazione di una relazione multicanale con i propri clienti e registrano perciò punte del 47% di utenti attivi da pc e del 28-30% di utenti mobile.

Tuttavia, dall’indagine condotta su oltre 50 banche e 15 gruppi bancari per monitorare lo stato dell’arte del mondo bancario retail italiano e dei canali di relazione con il cliente maggiormente utilizzati emerge come la maggior parte delle filiali sia ancora di tipo tradizionale, basata cioè su uno sportello a cui i clienti si rivolgono per qualsiasi tipo di operazione. Una minoranza di banche ha però installato chioschi self-service all’interno di alcune filiali (generalmente tra il 10% e il 20% della propria rete), che permettono al cliente di svolgere in autonomia alcune operazioni (tra cui, ad esempio, il versamento degli assegni o il pagamento di F24 e Mav/Rav), alleggerendo così il carico per i dipendenti e riducendo le attese per i clienti. Quasi tutti gli istituti di credito dispongono di Atm totalmente multifunzione, ma mediamente soltanto il 20% risulta evoluto e accetta versamenti, con punte del 50% nelle banche che hanno investito di più in questo strumento, mentre si scende al 10% negli istituti che hanno spinto di meno in queste soluzioni.

Come gli utenti consumer, anche le Pmi iniziano sempre più a servirsi dei canali digitali per interagire con le proprie banche di riferimento, e anche in questo caso fra gli istituti finanziari prevale un approccio tradizionale. L’offerta di servizi bancari rivolti alle Pmi è ampia e variegata, ma nella quasi totalità dei casi è offline. Tra le soluzioni di finanziamento a lungo termine proposte alle Pmi (il prodotto più diffuso, 24% dell’offerta complessiva), ad esempio, soltanto una è accessibile tramite Internet Banking, e anche in questo caso il richiedente deve comunque passare dalla filiale per la firma finale. All’estero, invece, esistono già delle soluzioni di finanziamento a lungo termine accessibili interamente online e sono diffusi i prestiti veloci, in Italia quasi assenti (esiste un solo caso).

I servizi Fintech – Il 16% degli italiani ha utilizzato almeno un servizio Fintech nel corso del 2017, quota che raddoppia (34%) se si considerano soltanto i Millennials. Nella maggior parte dei casi si tratta di uomini (59%) di età compresa fra 25 e 34 anni (31%) o fra 35 e 44 anni (39%), laureati (43%) e residenti nel Nord Ovest (34%) o nelle regioni del Centro e in Sardegna (26%). Il mobile payment è in questo momento il servizio più utilizzato tra gli utenti Internet italiani, con il 15% del campione che dichiara di averne fatto uso nell’ultimo anno. Seguono i mobile wallet (8%), la strong authentication (8%), i trasferimenti di denaro P2p (7%), il trading di criptovalute, i chatbot e il crowdfunding (tutti alla pari al 5%). Chiude la classifica dei servizi Fintech più usati il robo advisoring (1%), l’unico però il cui livello di conoscenza cresce in modo significativo tra i soli Millennials, passando dal 12% al 30%. I servizi più conosciuti, invece, sono i pagamenti in mobilità (45%) e il crowdfunding (39%).

Le banche sono in cima alle preferenze per quanto riguarda la gestione dei risparmi (67%), i finanziamenti (57%) e i pagamenti in mobilità (47%, secondi a pari merito con supermercati e Poste e dietro ai siti di eCommerce, indicati dal 50% del campione). Se si guarda alle indicazioni dei Millennials, però, le banche perdono terreno nel mobile payment, dove si fermano al 42% contro il 57% dei siti di eCommerce e il 52% dei supermercati, e nei finanziamenti (51%), e vedono aumentare il numero di utenti che si rivolgono a società di consulenza (26% contro il 21% del campione totale) e produttori di smartphone (15% contro il 9% del totale degli intervistati) per la gestione dei propri risparmi. Gli attori che si affacciano al mondo dei servizi bancari o sono già presenti con servizi specifici – le assicurazioni, le società di consulenza finanziaria, le catene di supermercati, i produttori di telefoni, i siti di ecommerce, gli operatori di telefonia e le grandi aziende Internet – variano tra il 6% e il 17% per la gestione dei risparmi e tra il 12% e il 26% per la richiesta di un prestito. Come immaginano gli utenti la banca del futuro? Più di un intervistato su due (54%) vorrebbe servizi di base gratuiti, il 37% velocità nel completare le operazioni e nel rispondere ai problemi, il 33% vorrebbe una persona per risolvere i casi più complessi, il 33% maggiore trasparenza sugli investimenti e il 32% una disponibilità h24.

Robo Advisor – L’intelligenza artificiale inizia ad essere una realtà tangibile nel settore finanziario con almeno 50 chatbot di istituti finanziari e oltre 110 forme di Robo advisoring censiti a livello internazionale. L’analisi sull’offerta di servizi di Robo Advisor tra le banche retail italiane mostra però che ci si trova ancora agli albori di questo mercato: sono pochi i casi e alcune piccole banche si appoggiano a servizi offerti da attori terzi, anche se alcuni degli istituti intervistati stanno lavorando al lancio di un proprio Robo Advisor nel 2018.

L’analisi sugli operatori di RoboAdvisor a livello internazionale rivela che la maggioranza di questi ha base in Nord America, sia incumbent (55%) che startup (40%), con strategie principalmente passive tra le startup e con una combinazione di strategie attive e passive per gli incumbent.

Le Startup Fintech – Nel periodo 2014-2017 730 startup Fintech hanno raccolto finanziamenti per 25,7 miliardi di dollari. Il 60% di queste nuove imprese offre servizi bancari, il 19% soluzioni per investimenti, il 5% si rivolge al settore assicurativo e il restante 16%, pur non essendo formato propriamente da startup finanziarie, offre servizi di supporto specifici per l’ambito Finance.

La concorrenza delle Big Tech – L’Osservatorio ha censito 51 grandi imprese internazionali operanti in settori diversi da quello finanziario che stanno espandendo le proprie iniziative su segmenti delle attività finanziarie, offrendo una o più soluzioni sviluppate internamente (il 60%) o tramite partnership con banche e compagnie assicurative (24%) o con anche altre tipologie di attori, come società non finanziarie, startup Fintech, service provider (16%).

La Blockchain – Nel 2017 le banche hanno affrontato il tema Blockchain & Distributed Ledger in modo più razionale rispetto agli anni scorsi: da un lato sono aumentate le sperimentazioni volte a capire meglio il potenziale della tecnologia, dall’altro sono cresciute la conoscenza e la consapevolezza sul tema. Il 67% degli oltre 185 annunci di sperimentazioni e servizi rilasciati a livello globale tra gennaio 2016 e settembre 2017 è stato promosso da istituti finanziari, che in assoluto risultano essere il settore che maggiormente si è avvicinato all’argomento. Gli ambiti su cui si sono concentrate le banche sono soluzioni di Blockchain e Distributed Ledger per la gestione dei pagamenti interbancari (quasi il 38% delle sperimentazioni), per soluzioni di capital market (28%), per la certificazione e gestione documentale (10%), per soluzioni di supply chain Finance (9%), per soluzioni di tracciabilità dei movimenti finanziari (6%), per processi di identificazione dei clienti (5%) e per sistemi di votazione all’interno dei Consigli di Amministrazione (4%).

Articolo tratto da Corcom di Federica Meta

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